Historia de Internet

Resumen

Historia de Internet: ARPANet y TCP/IP.

Contenido

En este tema vas a conocer la historia de Internet.

Debes ver el vídeo Historia de Internet: su nacimiento. Con en este vídeo conocerás cómo fue el nacimiento de Internet, los primeros años del programa ARPANet, Leonard Kleinrock y la comunicación basada en la conmutación de paquetes, la primera comunicación en ARPANet en 1969, la expansión de ARPANet, la creación del protocolo TCP por Vint Cerf y Robert Kahn y sabrás que los llamados "padres de Internet" recibieron el Premio Príncipe de Asturias de Investigación Científica y Técnica en el año 2002.

Recursos

Ejercicios

Imprescindible
  1. Preguntas sobre el vídeo History of the Internet
  2. Preguntas sobre el vídeo Vint Cerf (Digital Revolution Rushes Sequence)
  3. Preguntas sobre los vídeos de Leonard Kleinrock

Vídeos

Imprescindible
  1. 40th Anniversary of the Net - October 29, 1969: On the evening of October 29, 1969 the first data travelled between two nodes of the ARPANET, a key ancestor of the Internet. Even more important, this was one of the first big trials of a then-radical idea: Networking computers to each other. The men who symbolically turned the key on the connected world we know today were two young programmers, Charley Kline at UCLA and Bill Duvall at SRI in Northern California, using special equipment made by BBN in Cambridge, Massachussetts.
  2. Historia de Internet: su nacimiento: Historia de Internet, su nacimiento, los primeros años del programa ARPANet, Leonard Kleinrock y la comunicación basada en la conmutación de paquetes, la primera comunicación en 1969, la expansión de ARPANet, el protocolo TCP de Vint Cerf y Robert Kahn.
  3. History of the Internet: "History of the internet" is an animated documentary explaining the inventions from time-sharing to filesharing, from Arpanet to Internet.
  4. The first Internet connection, with UCLA's Leonard Kleinrock: Internet pioneer and UCLA computer science professor Leonard Kleinrock discusses the process of connecting the first host computer to the fledgling Internet, then known as the ARPANET, in September 1969, and sending the first host-to-host message a month later on October 29, 1969.
  5. UCLA's Leonard Kleinrock displays Internet's first router: Internet pioneer and UCLA computer science professor Leonard Kleinrock displays the Internet's first router, or "switch" -- known as an Interface Message Processor -- and describes the process of connecting it with UCLA's host computer, leading to the first-ever Internet message sent on October 29, 1969.
  6. UCLA's Leonard Kleinrock on packet switching, early Internet: Internet pioneer and UCLA computer science professor Leonard Kleinrock discusses the childhood event that led to his career in engineering, his research on packet switching, and the process of bringing the early Internet to life.
  7. Vint Cerf (Digital Revolution Rushes Sequence): Vint Cerf is Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist of Google, and is often referred to as 'the father of the internet'. Here he discusses how the internet was designed, the importance of 'net neutrality', and the human experience of the internet.
Complementario
  1. 1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks: This vintage film features MIT Science Reporter John Fitch at the MIT Computation Center in an extended interview with MIT professor of computer science Fernando J. Corbato. The film was co-produced by WGBH (Boston) and MIT. The prime focus of the film is timesharing, one of the most important developments in computing, and one which has come in and out of favor several times over the last several decades as the dichotomy between remote and centrally-managed computing resources played out; the latest incarnation for centrally-managed computing resources is known as cloud computing.
  2. How the Internet Began - Life Online at the National Media Museum: An animated timeline explaining the history of the internet 1969-1983, featuring some of the innovators who created it (Vint Cerf & Leonard Kleinrock).
  3. Internet Pioneers: Dr. Larry Smarr - How the Internet Happened: Dr. Larry Smarr of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) / University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) (UIUC) talks about the history of the Internet. This the raw footage of an interview I did in 1997 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Dr. Smarr talks about the history of high performance computing and how high performance computing led to the formation of the NSFNet. Larry also talks about how the development of software to access supercomputers set the stage for the development of NCSA Mosaic - the first web browser which was available on Unix, Macintosh and Windows - and is seen as many as the beginning of the consumer-driven web/internet.
  4. Internet users guide from 1990: Curioso vídeo de mediados de los años 90 en el que se explica qué es Internet y la Web y qué se puede hacer en Internet y en la Web.
  5. There and Back Again: A Packet's Tale - How does the Internet work?: The video lets you ride shotgun with a packet of data—one of trillions involved in the trillions of Internet interactions that happen every second. Look deep beneath the surface of the most basic Internet transaction, and follow the packet as it flows from your fingertips, through circuits, wires, and cables, to a host server, and then back again, all in less than a second.

Lecturas

Imprescindible
  1. El verdadero origen de Internet: Aclaración de la idea errónea que existe sobre el origen de Internet como "un proyecto militar estadounidense para crear una red de ordenadores que uniera los centros de investigación dedicados a labores de defensa en la década de los 60 en los Estados Unidos y que pudiera seguir funcionando a pesar de que alguno de sus nodos fuera destruido por un hipotético ataque nuclear".
  2. Programación de aplicaciones web: historia, principios básicos y clientes web: Introducción. Historia de Internet. Arquitectura cliente/servidor. Qué es una aplicación web. Estructura de un sitio web. HTML. Guía de estilo. Lenguajes de script. JavaScript. Modelo de Objetos de Documento.
  3. The Arpanet: Explicación sobre el Interface Message Processor (IMP) de la empresa Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) que lo construyó.
Complementario
  1. A Brief History of the Internet: Una breve historia de Internet escrita por algunos de sus protagonistas.
  2. A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication: A protocol that supports the sharing of resources that exist in different packet switching networks is presented. The protocol provides for variation in individual network packet sizes, transmission failures, sequencing, flow control, end-to-end error checking, and the creation and destruction of logical process-to-process connections. Some implementation issues are considered, and problems such as internetwork routing, accounting, and timeouts are exposed.
  3. Celebrating the birthplace of the Internet in pictures: Nov. 21 marks the 42nd anniversary of the first permanent Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) link between UCLA's Interface Message Processor (IMP) and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By Dec. 5, 1969, the original four-node ARPANET environment was set up. History notes this network as the world's first operational packet switching network and the core of what is today’s Internet. UCLA recently opened the Kleinrock Internet Heritage Site and Archive in honor of the ARPANET project’s overseer Professor Leonard Kleinrock, to preserve and celebrate the birthplace of the Internet. The first message between the nodes had been sent by Kleinrock on Oct. 29, 1969.
  4. Charles Babbage Institute – Oral Histories: Entrevistas realizadas a los padres de Internet, como Vinton Cerf, Leonard Kleinrock, Robert Kahn o Lawrence Roberts.
  5. Early Internet Leaders: Lista de personas que contribuyeron de forma significativa al diseño y desarrollo de Internet durante sus primeros años.
  6. Happy Birthday, Sputnik! (Thanks for the Internet): Fifty years ago, a small Soviet satellite was launched, stunning the U.S. and sparking a massive technology research effort. Could we be in for another "October surprise"?
  7. Hobbes' Internet Timeline: Timeline de la historia de Internet, desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad.
  8. How the Web Was Won: Fifty years ago, in response to the surprise Soviet launch of Sputnik, the U.S. military set up the Advanced Research Projects Agency. It would become the cradle of connectivity, spawning the era of Google and YouTube, of Amazon and Facebook, of the Drudge Report and the Obama campaign. Each breakthrough—network protocols, hypertext, the World Wide Web, the browser—inspired another as narrow-tied engineers, long-haired hackers, and other visionaries built the foundations for a world-changing technology. Keenan Mayo and Peter Newcomb let the people who made it happen tell the story.
  9. Internet History: This Internet Timeline begins in 1962, before the word ‘Internet’ is invented. The world’s 10,000 computers are primitive, although they cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. They have only a few thousand words of magnetic core memory, and programming them is far from easy. By 1992, when this timeline ends, the Internet has one million hosts, the ARPANET has ceased to exist, computers are nine orders of magnitude faster, and network bandwidth is twenty million times greater.
  10. La Internet, seis décadas: Presentación interactiva que repasa la historia de Internet destacando los acontecimientos más importantes. Incluye también la historia de la Web.
  11. List of Internet pioneers: Lista de pioneros de Internet disponible en la Wikipedia.
  12. Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet: Historia de Internet y de la Web, a través de un timeline, sus personajes y los acontecimientos más importantes.
  13. No credit for Uncle Sam in creating Net? Vint Cerf disagrees: Artículo publicado el 25/07/2012 en respuesta al artículo "Who Really Invented the Internet?" que rechazaba el verdadero origen de Internet.
  14. So, who really did invent the Internet?: Artículo publicado el 23/07/2012 en respuesta al artículo "Who Really Invented the Internet?" que rechazaba el verdadero origen de Internet.
  15. Timeline: Sputnik and Three Decades of DARPA Hegemony: This timeline accompanies our story Happy Birthday, Sputnik! (Thanks for the Internet). The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency laid the foundations for an astonishing number of today's technologies.
  16. Where Did the Internet Really Come From?: Steve Crocker is chairman of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. In the late 1960s, he was a UCLA graduate student who helped create the ARPANET, a precursor to the Internet.
  17. Who Really Invented the Internet?: Artículo publicado el 22/07/2012 en el que se cuestiona el verdadero origen de Internet.